MANUFACTURING PROCESS - DRAWING, COINING & SHEET METAL PROCESSES

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SHEET METAL PROCESSES

BENDING
BENDING IS ONE VERY COMMON SHEET METAL FORMING OPERATION USED NOT ONLY TO FORM SHAPES LIKE SEAMS, CORRUGATIONS, AND FLANGES BUT ALSO TO PROVIDE STIFFNESS TO THE PART (BY INCREASING ITS MOMENT OF INERTIA).

AS A SHEET METAL IS BENT ITS FIBRES EXPERIENCE A DISTORTION SUCH THAT THOSE NEARER ITS OUTSIDE, CONVEX SURFACE ARE FORCED TO STRETCH AND COME IN TENSION, WHILE THE INNER FIBRES COME IN COMPRESSION. SOMEWHERE, IN THE CROSS SECTION, THERE IS A PLANE WHICH SEPARATES THE TENSION AND COMPRESSION ZONES. THIS PLANE IS PARALLEL TO THE SURFACE AROUND WHICH THE SHEET IS BENDING, AND IS CALLED NEUTRAL AXIS. THE POSITION OF NEUTRAL AXIS DEPENDS ON THE RADIUS AND ANGLE OF BEND. FURTHER, BECAUSE OF THE POISSON'S RATIO, THE WIDTH OF THE PART L IN THE OUTER REGION IS SMALLER, AND IN THE INNER REGION IT IS LARGER, THAN THE INITIAL ORIGINAL WIDTH. 

BEND ALLOWANCE
IT IS THE LENGTH OF THE NEUTRAL AXIS IN THE BEND, THIS DETERMINES THE BLANK LENGTH NEEDED FOR A BENT PART. IT CAN BE APPROXIMATELY ESTIMATED FROM THE RELATION
LB = A ( R + KT )
WHERE, LB = BEND ALLOWANCE (MM)
A = BEND ANGLE (RADIAN)
R = BEND RADIUS (MM)
T = THICKNESS OF SHEET (MM), AND
K = CONSTANT, WHOSE VALUE MAY BE TAKEN AS 1/3 WHEN R < 2T, AND AS 1/2 WHEN R ³ 2T.

MINIMUM BEND RADIUS

AS THE RATIO OF THE BEND RADIUS TO THE THICKNESS OF SHEET (R / T) DECREASES, THE TENSILE STRAIN ON THE OUTER FIBRES OF SHEET INCREASES. IF R / T DECREASES BEYOND A CERTAIN LIMIT, CRACKS START APPEARING ON THE SURFACE OF MATERIAL. THIS LIMIT IS CALLED MINIMUM BEND RADIUS FOR THE MATERIAL.
MINIMUM BEND RADIUS IS GENERALLY EXPRESSED IN TERMS OF THE THICKNESS OF MATERIAL, SUCH AS 2T, 3T, 4T, ETC. TABLE 6.1 GIVES THE MINIMUM BEND RADIUS ALLOWED FOR DIFFERENT MATERIALS. 

TABLE 6.1 MINIMUM BEND RADIUS FOR VARIOUS MATERIALS AT ROOM TEMPERATURE

MATERIAL
CONDITION
SOFT
HARD
ALUMINUM ALLOYS
BERYLLIUM COPPER
BRASS,LOW-LEADED
MAGNESIUM
STEELS
AUSTENITIC STAINLESS
LOW-CARBON,LOW-ALLOY
TITANIUM
TITANIUM ALLOYS
0
0
0
5T
 
0.5T
0.5T
0.7T
2.5T
6T
4T
2T
13T
 
6T
4T
3T
4T


BENDING FORCE :
THERE ARE TWO GENERAL TYPES OF DIE BENDING : V – DIE BENDING AND WIPING DIE BENDING. V – DIE BENDING IS USED EXPENSIVELY IN BRAKE DIE OPERATIONS AND STAMPING DIE OPERATIONS. THE BENDING FORCE CAN BE ESTIMATED FROM THE FOLLOWING SIMPLE RELATION.
P = K.Y.L.T2 / D

WHERE P IS BENDING FORCE, G IS THE YIELD STRESS OF THE MATERIAL, L IS THE BEND LENGTH ( BEND ALLOWANCE ), T IS THE SHEET THICKNESS, D IS THE DIE OPENING AND K IS A CONSTANT WHOSE VALUE CAN BE TAKEN AS 1.3 FOR A V-DIE AND 0.3 FOR A WIPING DIE. FIG 6.2 SHOWS VARIOUS TYPES OF BENDING DIES. 

BENDING FORCE VARIES AS THE PUNCH PROGRESSES THROUGH THE BENDING OPERATION. THE FORCE IS ZERO IN THE BEGINNING. IT RISES AND REACHES THE MAXIMUM VALUE AS THE PUNCH PROGRESSES AND REACHES THE BOTTOM OF THE STROKE.

EXAMPLE:      
A 400 MM LONG AND 2.5 MM THICK PIECE OF CARBON STEEL SHEET IS REQUIRED TO BE BENT AT 900 USING A V – DIE. YOU MAY ASSUME THE YIELD STRESS OF THE MATERIAL AS 500 MPA AND THE DIE OPENING AS 10 TIMES THE MATERIAL THICKNESS. ESTIMATE THE FORCE REQUIRED FOR THE OPERATION.

SOLUTION : HERE, Y = 500 MPA
 L = 400 MM
  T = 2.5 MM
 K = 1.3 (FOR V – DIE)
D = 25 MM
BENDING FORCE P = K.Y.L.T2 / D
  = 1.3 X 500 X 400 X (2.5)2 / 25
  = 65 KN

DRAWING
IT IS A PROCESS OF COLD FORMING A FLAT BLANK OF SHEET METAL INTO A HOLLOW VESSEL WITHOUT MUCH WRINKLING, TRIMMING, OR FRACTURING. THE PROCESS INVOLVES FORCING THE SHEET METAL BLANK INTO A DIE CAVITY WITH A PUNCH. THE PUNCH EXERTS SUFFICIENT FORCE AND THE METAL IS DRAWN OVER THE EDGE OF THE DIE OPENING AND INTO THE DIE, FIG 6.4. IN FORMING A CUP, HOWEVER, THE METAL GOES COMPLETELY INTO THE DIE, FIG 6.5. 

THE METAL BEING DRAWN MUST POSSESS A COMBINATION OF DUCTILITY AND STRENGTH SO THAT IT DOES NOT RUPTURE IN THE CRITICAL AREA (WHERE THE METAL BLENDS FROM THE PUNCH FACE TO THE VERTICAL PORTION OF THE PUNCH). THE METAL IN THIS AREA IS SUBJECTED TO STRESS THAT OCCURS WHEN THE METAL IS PULLED FROM THE FLAT BLANK INTO THE DIE.

OPERATION. A SETUP SIMILAR TO THAT USED FOR BLANKING IS USED FOR DRAWING WITH THE DIFFERENCE THAT THE PUNCH AND DIE ARE GIVEN NECESSARY ROUNDING AT THE CORNERS TO PERMIT SMOOTH FLOW OF METAL DURING DRAWING. THE BLANK OF APPROPRIATE DIMENSIONS IS PLACE WITHIN THE GUIDES ON THE DIE PLATE. THE PUNCH DESCENDS SLOWLY ON THE BLANK AND METAL IS DRAWN INTO THE DIE AND THE BLANK IS FORMED INTO THE SHAPE OF CUP AS PUNCH REACHES THE BOTTOM OF THE DIE. WHEN THE CUP REACHES THE COUNTER – BORED PORTION OF THE DIE, THE TOP EDGE OF THE CUP FORMED AROUND THE PUNCH EXPANDS A BIT DUE TO THE SPRING BACK. ON THE RETURN STROKE OF THE PUNCH, THE CUP IS STRIPPED OFF THE PUNCH BY THIS COUNTER – BORED PORTION.

THE TERM SHALLOW DRAWING IS USED WHEN THE HEIGHT OF CUP FORMED IS LESS THAN HALF ITS DIAMETER. WHEN DRAWING DEEPER CUP (HEIGHT GREATER THAT ½ DIAMETER) THE CHANCES OF EXCESSIVE WRINKLE FORMATION AT THE EDGES OF BLANK INCREASES. TO PREVENT THIS, A BLANK HOLDER IS NORMALLY PROVIDED, SEE FIG 6.4. AS THE DRAWING PROCESS PROCEEDS THE BLANK HOLDER STOPS THE BLANK FROM INCREASING IN THICKNESS BEYOND A LIMIT AND ALLOWS THE METAL TO FLOW RADIALLY. THE LIMITING THICKNESS IS CONTROLLED BY THE GAP BETWEEN THE DIE AND THE BLANK HOLDER, OR BY THE SPRING PRESSURE IN THE CASE OF A SPRING LOADED BLANK HOLDER.
SOME LUBRICANT IS GENERALLY USED OVER THE FACE OF THE BLANK TO REDUCE FRICTION AND HENCE DRAWING LOAD.

BLANK SIZE
IT IS GENERALLY DIFFICULT TO FIND THE EXACT SIZE OF THE BLANK NEEDED FOR DRAWING A GIVEN CUP, BECAUSE OF THINNING AND THICKENING OF THE METAL SHEET DURING THE DRAWING OPERATION. THE FOLLOWING SIMPLE RELATIONS CAN BE USED FOR DETERMINE THE BLANK DIAMETER D: 

WHERE  D = OUTSIDE DIAMETER OF CUP
H = HEIGHT OF CUP
R = CORNER RADIUS ON PUNCH.

DRAWING FORCE.
FOR DRAWING CYLINDRICAL SHELLS HAVING CIRCULAR CROSS SECTION, THE MAXIMUM DRAWING FORCE P CAN BE DETERMINED FROM THE RELATION
P = K.T.D.T.Y
  
WHERE D = OUTSIDE DIAMETER OF CUP
T = THICKNESS OF MATERIAL
Y = YIELD STRENGTH OF MATERIAL
K = FACTOR WHOSE VALUE IS APPROX. EQUAL TO [D/D – 0.6]
D = BLANK DIAMETER


EMBOSSING
EMBOSSING IS AN OPERATION IN WHICH SHEET METAL IS DRAWN TO SHALLOW DEPTHS WITH MALE AND FEMALE MATCHING DIES, FIG 6.6. THE OPERATION IS CARRIED OUT MOSTLY FOR THE PURPOSE OF STIFFENING FLAT PANELS.THE OPERATION IS ALSO SOMETIMES USED FOR MAKING DECORATION ITEMS LIKE NUMBER PLATES OR NAME PLATES, JEWELRY, ETC.

COINING
COINING IS A SEVERE METAL SQUEEZING OPERATION IN WHICH THE FLOW OF METAL OCCURS ONLY AT THE TOP LAYERS OF THE MATERIAL AND NOT THROUGHOUT THE VALUES. THE OPERATION IS CARRIED OUT IN CLOSED DIES MAINLY FOR THE PURPOSE OF PRODUCING FINE DETAILS SUCH AS NEEDED IN MINTING COINS, AND MEDAL OR JEWELRY MAKING. THE BLANK IS KEPT IN THE DIE CAVITY AND PRESSURES AS HIGH AS FIVE TO SIX TIMES THE STRENGTH OF MATERIAL ARE APPLIED. DEPENDING UPON THE DETAILS REQUIRED TO BE COINED ON THE PART, MORE THAN ONE COINING OPERATIONS MAY BE USED.

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN COINING AND EMBOSSING IS THAT THE SAME DESIGN IS CREATED ON BOTH SIDES OF THE WORK PIECE IN EMBOSSING (ONE SIDE DEPRESSED AND THE OTHER RAISED ), WHEREAS IN COINING OPERATION, A DIFFERENT DESIGN IS CREATED ON EACH SIDE OF WORK PIECE.

References :- www.nptel.iitm.ac.in












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