Industrial Engineering - MATERIAL HANDLING

By
Advertisement

MATERIAL HANDLING

INTRODUCTION AND IMPORTANCE
MATERIAL HANDLING IS A NECESSARY AND SIGNIFICANT COMPONENT OF ANY PRODUCTIVE ACTIVITY. IT IS SOMETHING THAT GOES ON IN EVERY PLANT ALL THE TIME. MATERIAL HANDLING MEANS PROVIDING THE RIGHT AMOUNT OF THE RIGHT MATERIAL, IN THE RIGHT CONDITION, AT THE RIGHT PLACE, AT THE RIGHT TIME, IN THE RIGHT POSITION AND FOR THE RIGHT COST, BY USING THE RIGHT METHOD. IT IS SIMPLY PICKING UP, MOVING, AND LYING DOWN OF MATERIALS THROUGH MANUFACTURE. IT APPLIES TO THE MOVEMENT OF RAW MATERIALS, PARTS IN PROCESS, FINISHED GOODS, PACKING MATERIALS, AND DISPOSAL OF SCRAPS. IN GENERAL, HUNDREDS AND THOUSANDS TONS OF MATERIALS ARE HANDLED DAILY REQUIRING THE USE OF LARGE AMOUNT OF MANPOWER WHILE THE MOVEMENT OF MATERIALS TAKES PLACE FROM ONE PROCESSING AREA TO ANOTHER OR FROM ONE DEPARTMENT TO ANOTHER DEPARTMENT OF THE PLANT. THE COST OF MATERIAL HANDLING CONTRIBUTES SIGNIFICANTLY TO THE TOTAL COST OF MANUFACTURING.

IN THE MODERN ERA OF COMPETITION, THIS HAS ACQUIRED GREATER IMPORTANCE DUE TO GROWING NEED FOR REDUCING THE MANUFACTURING COST. THE IMPORTANCE OF MATERIAL HANDLING FUNCTION IS GREATER IN THOSE INDUSTRIES WHERE THE RATIO OF HANDLING COST TO THE PROCESSING COST IS LARGE. TODAY MATERIAL HANDLING IS RIGHTLY CONSIDERED AS ONE OF THE MOST POTENTIALLY LUCRATIVE AREAS FOR REDUCTION OF COSTS. A PROPERLY DESIGNED AND INTEGRATED MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEM PROVIDES TREMENDOUS COST SAVING OPPORTUNITIES AND CUSTOMER SERVICES IMPROVEMENT POTENTIAL. 

DEFINITIONS

THERE ARE MANY WAYS BY WHICH MATERIAL HANDLING HAS BEEN DEFINED BUT ONE SIMPLE DEFINITION IS “MATERIAL HANDLING IS THE MOVEMENT AND STORAGE OF MATERIAL AT THE LOWEST POSSIBLE COST THROUGH THE USE OF PROPER METHOD AND EQUIPMENT”.

OTHER DEFINITIONS ARE:
  • “MATERIAL HANDLING EMBRACES ALL OF THE BASIC OPERATIONS INVOLVED IN THE MOVEMENT OF BULK, PACKAGED, AND INDIVIDUAL PRODUCTS IN A SEMISOLID OR SOLID STATE BY MEANS OF MACHINERY, AND WITHIN LIMITS OF A PLACE OF BUSINESS”.
  • “MATERIAL HANDLING IS THE ART AND SCIENCE OF MOVING, STORING, PROTECTING, AND CONTROLLING MATERIAL”
  • “MATERIAL HANDLING IS THE PREPARATION, PLACING, AND POSITIONING OF MATERIALS TO FACILITATE THEIR MOVEMENT OR STORAGE”.

OBJECTIVES OF MATERIAL HANDLING

THE PRIMARY OBJECTIVE OF A MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEM IS TO REDUCE THE UNIT COST OF PRODUCTION. THE OTHER SUBORDINATE OBJECTIVES ARE:


1.      REDUCE MANUFACTURING CYCLE TIME
2.      REDUCE DELAYS, AND DAMAGE
3.      PROMOTE SAFETY AND IMPROVE WORKING CONDITIONS
4.      MAINTAIN OR IMPROVE PRODUCT QUALITY
  1.        PROMOTE PRODUCTIVITY 
  2.    6. PROMOTE INCREASED USE OF FACILITIES
  1. MATERIAL SHOULD FLOW IN A STRAIGHT LINE
  2. MATERIAL SHOULD MOVE AS SHORT A DISTANCE AS POSSIBLE
  3. USE GRAVITY
  4. MOVE MORE MATERIAL AT ONE TIME
  5. AUTOMATE MATERIAL HANDLING
    
  1. PROMOTE THE USE OF BUILDING CUBE
  2. PURCHASE VERSATILE EQUIPMENT
  3. DEVELOP A PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PROGRAM
  4. MAXIMIZE THE EQUIPMENT UTILIZATION ETC.
       7. REDUCE TARE WEIGHT
       8. CONTROL INVENTORY

REDUCE COST OF HANDLING
THE TOTAL COST OF MATERIAL HANDLING PER UNIT MUST DECREASE. THE TOTAL COST PER UNIT IS THE SUM OF THE FOLLOWING:
  1. COST OF MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT – BOTH FIXED COST AND OPERATING COST CALCULATED AS THE COST OF EQUIPMENT DIVIDED BY THE NUMBER OF UNITS OF MATERIAL HANDLED OVER THE WORKING LIFE OF THE EQUIPMENT.
  2. COST OF LABOR – BOTH DIRECT AND INDIRECT ASSOCIATED COST CALCULATED IN TERMS OF COST PER UNIT OF MATERIAL HANDLED.
  3. COST OF MAINTENANCE OF EQUIPMENT, DAMAGES, LOST ORDERS AND EXPEDITING EXPENSES, ALSO CALCULATED, IN TERMS OF COST PER UNIT OF MATERIAL HANDLED.
REDUCED MANUFACTURING CYCLE TIME
THE TOTAL TIME REQUIRED TO MAKE A PRODUCT FROM THE RECEIPT OF ITS RAW MATERIAL TO THE FINISHED STATE CAN BE REDUCED USING AN EFFICIENT AND EFFECTIVE MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEM. THE MOVEMENT OF THE MATERIAL CAN BE FASTER AND HANDLING DISTANCE COULD BE REDUCED WITH THE ADOPTION OF AN APPROPRIATE MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEM. 

LIMITATIONS OF AUTOMATED MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEMS:
A GOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICE IS TO WEIGH BENEFITS AGAINST THE LIMITATIONS OR DISADVANTAGES BEFORE CONTEMPLATING ANY CHANGE. MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEMS ALSO HAVE CONSEQUENCES THAT MAY BE DISTINCTLY NEGATIVE. THESE ARE: 
  1. ADDITIONAL INVESTMENT
  2. LACK OF FLEXIBILITY
  3. VULNERABILITY TO DOWNTIME WHENEVER THERE IS BREAKDOWN
  4. ADDITIONAL MAINTENANCE STAFF AND COST
  5. COST OF AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT.
  6. SPACE AND OTHER REQUIREMENTS:

THE ABOVE LIMITATIONS OR DRAWBACKS OF ADOPTING MECHANIZED HANDLING EQUIPMENT HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED NOT TO DISCOURAGE THE USE OF MODERN HANDLING EQUIPMENT BUT TO EMPHASIZE THAT A JUDICIOUS BALANCE OF THE TOTAL BENEFITS AND LIMITATIONS IS REQUIRED BEFORE AN ECONOMICALLY SOUND DECISION IS MADE. 

WHEN TO DESIGN A MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEM?
THE NEED TO DESIGN A MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEM ARISES WHEN:
  1. A NEW PRODUCT IS BEING PLANNED FOR MANUFACTURE
  2. CHANGE IN THE EXISTING PRODUCT DESIGN REQUIRING A CORRESPONDING CHANGE IN THE LAYOUT
  3. OBSOLESCENCE OF FACILITIES
  4. FREQUENT ACCIDENTS
  5. ADOPTION OF NEW SAFETY STANDARDS  
SCOPE OF MATERIAL HANDLING
THE SCOPE OF MATERIAL HANDLING ACTIVITY IN ANY INDUSTRY DEPENDS ON THE TYPE AND SIZE OF INDUSTRY, THE PRODUCT MANUFACTURED, THE VALUE OF THE PRODUCT, THE VALUE OF THE ACTIVITY BEING PERFORMED, AND THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF MATERIAL HANDLING ACTIVITY TO THE OTHER ACTIVITIES. HOWEVER, IT SHOULD BE EMPHASIZED THAT A SIZABLE PORTION OF TOTAL MATERIAL HANDLING ACTIVITY IS NOT IN MANUFACTURING BUT IN THE FIELDS OF DISTRIBUTION, SERVICE INDUSTRIES, AGRICULTURE, AND CONSTRUCTION. IT IS VERY IMPORTANT THAT BOTH THE BEGINNING STUDENT AND MATERIAL-HANDLING ENGINEER BE AWARE OF THE MATERIAL HANDLING APPLICATIONS IN THE FOLLOWING AREAS: 
  1. INDUSTRIAL MATERIAL HANDLING
  2. TRANSPORTATION INDUSTRIES
  3. WAREHOUSING
  4. EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES
  5. PROCESS INDUSTRIES
PRINCIPLES OF MATERIAL HANDLING



THE COLLEGE-INDUSTRY COUNCIL ON MATERIAL HANDLING EDUCATION (CICMHE), SPONSORED BY MATERIAL HANDLING INSTITUTE INC., ADOPTED 20 PRINCIPLES OF MATERIAL HANDLING.

THESE PRINCIPLES (TABLE 1.) REPRESENT THE EXPERIENCE OF DESIGNERS WHO HAVE BEEN WORKING IN THE DESIGN AND OPERATIONS OF HANDLING SYSTEMS. THESE PRINCIPLES SERVE AS ROUGH GUIDES OR RULES OF THUMB FOR MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEM DESIGN. THE DESIGNERS OF MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEMS ARE USUALLY ADVISED TO FOLLOW THE FOLLOWING PRINCIPLES. HOWEVER, IN SOME CASES THEY MIGHT NOT BE ABLE TO APPLY THEM TO THE FULLEST EXTENT BECAUSE OF FACTORS SUCH AS THE LIMITATION ON CAPITAL, PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BUILDING, AND CAPABILITY OF THE EQUIPMENT.

TABLE 1. MATERIAL HANDLING PRINCIPLES

  1. PLANNING PRINCIPLE
  2. SYSTEMS PRINCIPLE
  3. MATERIAL FLOW PRINCIPLE
  4. SIMPLIFICATION PRINCIPLE
  5. GRAVITY PRINCIPLE
  6. SPACE UTILIZATION PRINCIPLE
  7. SAFETY PRINCIPLE
  8. STANDARDIZATION PRINCIPLE
  9. MAINTENANCE PRINCIPLE
  10. OBSOLESCENCE PRINCIPLE
  1. FLEXIBILITY PRINCIPLE
  2. MECHANIZATION PRINCIPLE
  3. COST PRINCIPLE
  4. ERGONOMIC PRINCIPLE
  5. ENERGY PRINCIPLE
  6. ECOLOGY PRINCIPLE
  7. COMPUTERIZATION PRINCIPLE
  8. ORIENTATION PRINCIPLE
  9. LAYOUT PRINCIPLE
  10. UNIT LOAD PRINCIPLE
 
FACTORS FOR CONSIDERATION IN MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEM DESIGN
THE MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEM DESIGN PROCESS IS ITERATIVE. THE ANALYZER HAS TO GO BACK AND FORTH BETWEEN THE DIFFERENT STEPS UNTIL A SATISFACTORY DESIGN HAS BEEN OBTAINED AND CAN BE IMPLEMENTED. THE MAJOR FACTORS FOR CONSIDERATION IN MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEM DESIGN ARE:
1.  MATERIAL
  1. FORM – GAS, LIQUID, SEMI – LIQUID, SOLID
  2. NATURE – BULK, UNIT LOAD, INDIVIDUAL ITEMS, FRAGILE, STURDY, BULKY
  3. CHARACTERISTICS – CHEMICAL, ELECTRICAL, MECHANICAL
  4. QUANTITY – PIECES, POUNDS, GALLONS, OTHER
2. MOVE
  1. SOURCE AND DESTINATION – RECEIVING, STOCKROOM, WARE HOUSE, SAME FLOOR, OTHER FLOOR, OTHER DEPARTMENT
  2. ROUTE – LOCATION , RANGE, PATH, CROSS TRAFFIC
  3. DISTANCE – HORIZONTAL, VERTICAL, INCLINED
  4. FREQUENCY – INTERMITTENT, UNIFORM, REGULAR, IRREGULAR, UNPREDICTABLE
  5. SPEED
3.  METHODS
  1. UNIT OR LOAD – BULK, ITEMS, CONTAINERS
  2. MANPOWER – ONE, SEVERAL, MANY, NONE
EQUIPMENT – CONVEYOR, FORKLIFT TRUCK, CRANE ETC.




REFERENCES:-  www.nptel.iitm.ac.in/

23 comments:

  1. DILIP MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT manufactures and suppliers of huge range of Material Handling Equipments suitable for a wide variety of users.

    MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENTS
    ELECTRIC BATTERY POWERED STACKER
    LIFT TABLE PALLET TRUCKS


    For more details visit :- http://www.diliplifttruck.com/

    ReplyDelete
  2. Material Handling Equipment is useful in a variety of businesses. Material handling equipment are used for moving or placing different types of materials. various material handling equipments like forklifts, industrial shelves and others such equipments are used for good handling of materials used in industry.

    ReplyDelete
  3. MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENTS
    DILIP MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT manufactures and suppliers of huge range of Material Handling Equipments suitable for a wide variety of users.

    MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENTS
    ELECTRIC BATTERY POWERED STACKER
    LIFT TABLE PALLET TRUCKS


    For more details visit :- http://www.diliplifttruck.com/

    ReplyDelete
  4. Good information provided for Material Handling Equipment Manufacturers by your blog post! I really agree with your all information. Thanks for sharing wonderful content. If you are searching any ideas related to Material Handling Equipment then you can visit : www.asiancranes.com

    ReplyDelete
  5. Hello DILIP MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT manufactures and suppliers of huge range of Material Handling Equipments suitable for a wide variety of users.Good information provided for Material Handling Equipment Manufacturers by your blog post! I really agree with your all information. Thanks for sharing wonderful content.I will share on my email id.
    toyotamaterialhandlingindia
    http://toyotamaterialhandlingindia.com
    toyotaindustry11@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  6. We manufacture following material handling and transfer equipment.

    IDLER ROLLER FRAME/ TROUGHED BELT CONVEYOR
    [BELT CONVEYORS FOR MINING PURPOSE]
    BELT/FLAT BED CONVEYOR
    CHAIN CONVEYORS
    HEAVY DUTY INDUSTRIAL CONVEYORS FOR MATERIAL HANDLING

    Regards
    Rmt Tools India
    gagan@rmttools.com || www.rmttools.com

    ReplyDelete
  7. At the time of transportation freight forwarder taking care of all these things. Thanks for sharing valuable information but this field but the system and criteria is totally depend on the product...Glad to have detail information. Its really an pleasure to post view on this article.

    ReplyDelete
  8. hi very nice post, got a collective information about material handling equipment. These equipments really are very useful in the industry. Thank you for the post.

    ReplyDelete
  9. Does industrial material processing include limiting pollution? Thank you for all of the information on how many materials are handled and distributed. I can see now how this can reduce manufacturing costs.
    Fred Hutchinson | http://www.mps-usa.com/

    ReplyDelete
  10. this is a very nice post. i learned more about material handling, i just want to add that material handling is also a part of the distribution, consumption, disposal and manufacturing process of businesses and companies focused on mass production.

    ReplyDelete
  11. Thanks for your information. Keep on updating, it will useful for others also. If u want to more information click on Lift Table Manufacturers in India

    ReplyDelete
  12. What is the importance of shipboard cargo handling equipments?
    material handling equipment

    ReplyDelete
  13. Great work your article have important information and i really appreciate.
    AxiomGB

    ReplyDelete
  14. Thanks for nice information about cranes. Your blog focuses on every detailed aspects which boosted my knowledge regarding cranes. Santek Equipment also manufactures high quality cranes & supply them to various sectors.
    Crane Manufacturer in India

    ReplyDelete
  15. U look sathiyam cinemas Pantry the Modular Kitchen In Chennai is more preferred for looking and sound effects

    ReplyDelete
  16. All MNC company need interior designs for new look. Its help look and feel gud.

    ReplyDelete
  17. One of the top most machinery supply in from Sendhamarai Engineering, most of the industrial company used Pipe Threading Machine.

    ReplyDelete
  18. One of the top most machinery supply in from Sendhamarai Engineering, most of the industrial company used Pipe Threading Machine.

    ReplyDelete
  19. My cousin recommended this blog and she was totally right keep up the fantastic work!

    Interior Designers Chennai

    ReplyDelete
  20. We are very famous modular kitchen in chennai circle you update more interior related post is very like to see your blog

    ReplyDelete
  21. As material handling equipment is valuable for the commercial purposes as material is taking care of hardware are utilized for moving or setting diverse sorts of materials and different material taking care of supplies like forklifts, modern racks and others such types of gear are utilized for good treatment of materials utilized as a part of industry.

    ReplyDelete