FACILITIES LAYOUT DESIGN AND FACILITIES LOCATION

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FACILITIES LAYOUT DESIGN AND FACILITIES LOCATION

FACILITIES LAYOUT DESIGN REFERS TO THE ARRANGEMENT OF ALL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND FURNISHINGS WITHIN A BUILDING ENVELOPE AFTER CONSIDERING THE VARIOUS OBJECTIVES OF THE FACILITY. THE LAYOUT CONSISTS OF PRODUCTION AREAS, SUPPORT AREAS, AND THE PERSONNEL AREAS IN THE BUILDING (TOMPKINS, J. A., ET AL., FACILITY PLANNING, SECOND EDITION, JOHN WILEY & SONS, NY, 1996).

NEED OF FACILITIES LAYOUT DESIGN
THE NEED FOR FACILITIES LAYOUT DESIGN ARISES BOTH IN THE PROCESS OF DESIGNING A NEW LAYOUT AND IN REDESIGNING AN EXISTING LAYOUT. THE NEED IN THE FORMER CASE IS OBVIOUS BUT IN THE LATTER CASE IT IS BECAUSE OF MANY DEVELOPMENTS AS WELL AS MANY PROBLEMS WITH IN THE FACILITY SUCH AS CHANGE IN THE PRODUCT DESIGN, OBSOLESCENCE OF EXISTING FACILITIES, CHANGE IN DEMAND, FREQUENT ACCIDENTS, MORE SCRAP AND REWORK, MARKET SHIFT, INTRODUCTION OF A NEW PRODUCT ETC. 

OBJECTIVES OF FACILITIES LAYOUT DESIGN
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES OF A TYPICAL FACILITY LAYOUT INCLUDE:

(1) OVERALL INTEGRATION AND EFFECTIVE USE OF MAN, MACHINE, MATERIAL, AND SUPPORTING SERVICES,
(2) MINIMIZATION OF MATERIAL HANDLING COST BY SUITABLY PLACING THE FACILITIES IN THE BEST POSSIBLE WAY,
(3) BETTER SUPERVISION AND CONTROL,
(4) EMPLOYEE'S CONVENIENCE, SAFETY, IMPROVED MORALE AND BETTER WORKING ENVIRONMENT,
(5) HIGHER FLEXIBILITY AND ADAPTABILITY TO CHANGING CONDITIONS AND
(6) WASTE MINIMIZATION AND HIGHER PRODUCTIVITY.

TYPES OF LAYOUT
THE BASIC TYPES OF LAYOUTS ARE:
  • PRODUCT LAYOUT
  • PROCESS LAYOUT
  • FIXED POSITION LAYOUT
  • CELLULAR LAYOUT

PRODUCT LAYOUT
THIS TYPE OF LAYOUT IS GENERALLY USED IN SYSTEMS WHERE A PRODUCT HAS TO BE MANUFACTURED OR ASSEMBLED IN LARGE QUANTITIES. IN PRODUCT LAYOUT THE MACHINERY AND AUXILIARY SERVICES ARE LOCATED ACCORDING TO THE PROCESSING SEQUENCE OF THE PRODUCT WITHOUT ANY BUFFER STORAGE WITHIN THE LINE ITSELF. 

PROCESS LAYOUT
IN A PROCESS LAYOUT, (ALSO REFERRED TO AS A JOB SHOP LAYOUT) SIMILAR MACHINES AND SERVICES ARE LOCATED TOGETHER. THEREFORE, IN A PROCESS TYPE OF LAYOUT ALL DRILLS ARE LOCATED IN ONE AREA OF THE LAYOUT AND ALL MILLING MACHINES ARE LOCATED IN ANOTHER AREA. A MANUFACTURING EXAMPLE OF A PROCESS LAYOUT IS A MACHINE SHOP. PROCESS LAYOUTS ARE ALSO QUITE COMMON IN NON-MANUFACTURING ENVIRONMENTS. EXAMPLES INCLUDE HOSPITALS, COLLEGES, BANKS, AUTO REPAIR SHOPS, AND PUBLIC LIBRARIES (MUTHER, R, SYSTEMATIC LAYOUT PLANNING, SECOND EDITION, CBI PUBLISHING COMPANY, INC. BOSTON, 1973). 

FIXED LOCATION LAYOUT
IN THIS TYPE OF LAYOUT, THE PRODUCT IS KEPT AT A FIXED POSITION AND ALL OTHER MATERIAL; COMPONENTS, TOOLS, MACHINES, WORKERS, ETC. ARE BROUGHT AND ARRANGED AROUND IT. THEN ASSEMBLY OR FABRICATION IS CARRIED OUT. THE LAYOUT OF THE FIXED MATERIAL LOCATION DEPARTMENT INVOLVES THE SEQUENCING AND PLACEMENT OF WORKSTATIONS AROUND THE MATERIAL OR PRODUCT. IT IS USED IN AIRCRAFT ASSEMBLY, SHIPBUILDING, AND MOST CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. A PICTORIAL REPRESENTATION OF A FIXED LOCATION TYPE OF LAYOUT IS GIVEN IN FIGURE 3. THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES ARE DETAILED IN TABLE 3.


REFERENCES:www.nptel.iitm.ac.in/


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