THERMODYNAMICS - LAB MANUAL ( B-TECH KUK)

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AIM:- STUDY OF I.C. ENGINE

INTRODUCTION:-
HEAT ENGINES: ANY TYPE OF ENGINE OR MACHINE WHICH DERIVES HEAT ENERGY FROM THE COMBUSTION OF FUEL OR ANY OTHER SOURCE AND CONVERTS THIS ENERGY INTO MECHANICAL WORK IS TERMED AS A HEAT ENGINE.
CLASSIFICATION OF HEAT ENGINES:-
  • · EXTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
  • · INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
EXTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES:-
IN THIS CASE, COMBUSTION OF FUEL TAKES PLACE OUTSIDE THE CYLINDER AS IN CASE OF STEAM ENGINES WHERE THE HEAT OF COMBUSTION IS EMPLOYED TO GENERATE STEAM WHICH IS USED TO MOVE A PISTON IN A CYLINDER..

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES (I.C. ENGINES):- IN THIS CASE, COMBUSTION OF THE FUEL WITH OXYGEN OF THE AIR OCCURS WITHIN THE CYLINDER OF THE ENGINE. THE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES GROUP INCLUDES ENGINES EMPLOYING MIXTURES OF COMBUSTIBLE GASES AND AIR, KNOWN AS GAS ENGINE:-

CLASSIFICATION OF I.C. ENGINES:-INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES MAY BE CLASSIFIED AS GIVEN BELOW:

1. ACCORDING TO CYCLE OF OPERATION:
  • TWO-STROKE CYCLE ENGINES
  • FOUR-STROKE CYCLE ENGINES
2. ACCORDING TO CYCLE OF COMBUSTION:
  • OTTO CYCLE ENGINE
  • DIESEL CYCLE ENGINE
  • DUAL-COMBUSTION
3. ACCORDING TO THE FUEL EMPLOYED AND THE METHOD OF FUEL SUPPLY TO THE ENGINE CYLINDER:
  • PETROL ENGINE
  • DIESEL ENGINE
  • OIL, GAS ENGINE

4. ACCORDING TO METHOD OF IGNITION:
  • SPARK IGNITION (S.L) ENGINE
  • COMPRESSION IGNITION (C.I.) ENGINE
5. ACCORDING TO METHOD OF COOLING THE CYLINDER:
  • AIR-COOLED ENGINE
  • WATER-COOLED ENGINE
6. ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF CYLINDERS:
  • SINGLE CYLINDER ENGINE
  • MULTI-CYLINDER ENGINE
DIFFERENT PARTS OF I.C. ENGINES (PARTS COMMON TO BOTH PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE):
1. CYLINDER
2. CYLINDER HEAD
3. PISTON
4. PISTON RINGS
5. GUDGEON PIN
6. CONNECTING ROD
7. CRANKSHAFT
8. CRANK
9. ENGINE BEARING
10. CRANK CASE
11. FLYWHEEL
12. GOVERNOR
13. VALVES AND VALVE OPERATING MECHANISM

PARTS FOR PETROL ENGINES ONLY:
1. SPARK PLUGS
2. CARBURETOR
3. FUEL PUMP
PARTS FOR DIESEL ENGINE ONLY:
1. FUEL PUMP
2. INJECTOR

TWO-STROKE CYCLE ENGINES:-
  • TWO STROKE PETROL ENGINE
  • TWO STROKE DIESEL ENGINE







TWO STROKE ENGINES:-
IN 1878, A BRITISH ENGINEER INTRODUCED A CYCLE WHICH COULD BE COMPLETED IN TWO STROKES OF PISTON RATHER THAN FOUR STROKES AS IS THE CASE WITH THE FOUR-STROKE CYCLE ENGINES.
IN THIS ENGINE SUCTION AND EXHAUST STROKES ARE ELIMINATED. HERE INSTEAD OF VALVES, PORTS ARE USED. THE EXHAUST GASES ARE DRIVEN OUT FROM ENGINE CYLINDER BY THE FRESH CHARGE OF FUEL ENTERING THE CYLINDER NEARLY AT THE END OF THE WORKING STROKE.
A TWO-STROKE PETROL ENGINE (USED IN SCOOTERS, MOTOR CYCLES ETC.).

THE CYLINDER L IS CONNECTED TO A CLOSED CRANK CHAMBER C.C. DURING THE UPWARD STROKE OF THE PISTON M, THE GASES IN L ARE COMPRESSED AND AT THE SAME TIME FRESH AIR AND FUEL (PETROL) MIXTURE ENTERS THE CRANK CHAMBER THROUGH THE VALVE V.












WHEN THE PISTON MOVES DOWNWARDS, V CLOSES AND THE MIXTURE IN THE CRANK CHAMBER IS COMPRESSED THE PISTON IS MOVING UPWARDS AND IS COMPRESSING AN EXPLOSIVE CHANGE WHICH HAS PREVIOUSLY BEEN SUPPLIED TO L. IGNITION TAKES PLACE AT THE END OF THE STROKE. THE PISTON THEN TRAVELS DOWNWARDS DUE TO EXPANSION OF THE GASES AND NEAR THE END OF THIS STROKE THE PISTON UNCOVERS THE EXHAUST PORT (E.P.).
THE TRANSFER PORT (T.P.) THEN IS UNCOVERED IMMEDIATELY, AND THE COMPRESSED CHARGE FROM THE CRANK CHAMBER FLOWS INTO THE CYLINDER AND IS DEFLECTED UPWARDS BY THE HUMP PROVIDED ON THE HEAD OF THE PISTON.
IT MAY BE NOTED THAT THE INCOMING AIR-PETROL MIXTURE HELPS THE REMOVAL OF GASES FROM THE ENGINE-CYLINDER; IF, IN CASE THESE EXHAUST GASES DO NOT LEAVE THE CYLINDER,
THE FRESH CHARGE GETS DILUTED AND EFFICIENCY OF THE ENGINE WILL DECREASE.
THE PISTON THEN AGAIN STARTS MOVING FROM B.D.C. TO T.D.C. AND THE CHARGE GETS COMPRESSED WHEN E.P. (EXHAUST PORT) AND T.P. ARE COVERED BY THE PISTON; THUS THE CYCLE IS REPEATED.

2 comments:

  1. Technology Submission - Novel Rotary-Turbo-InFlow Tech - Featured Development

    GEARTURBINE PROJECT
    Atypical InFlow Thermodynamic
    Technology Proposal Submission
    Novel Fueled Motor Engine Atypical Type

    *State of the art Innovative concept Top system Higher efficient percent.
    Have similar system of the Aeolipile Heron Steam device from Alexandria 10-70 AD. -New Form-Function Motor-Engine Device. Next Step, Epic Design Change, Broken-Seal Revelation. -Desirable Power-Plant Innovation.

    YouTube; * Atypical New • GEARTURBINE / Retrodynamic = DextroRPM VS LevoInFlow + Ying Yang Thrust Way Type - Non Waste Looses

    -This innovative concept consists of hull and core where are held all 8 bteps of the work-flow which make the concept functional. The core has several gears and turbines which are responsible for these 8 steps (5 of them are dedicated to the turbo stages). The first step is fuel compression, followed by 2 cold turbo levels. The fourth step is where the fuel starts burning – combustion stage, which creates thrust for the next, 5th step – thrust step, which provides power to the planetary gears and turbines and moves the system. This step is followed by two hot turbo steps and the circle is enclosed by the final 8th step – bigger turbine. All this motion in a retrodynamic circumstance effect, wich is plus higher RPM speed by self motion. The Reaction at front of the action.

    *8-X/Y Thermodynamic CYCLE - Way Steps:
    1)1-Compression / bigger
    2)2-Turbo 1 cold
    3)2-Turbo 2 cold
    4)2-Combustion - circular motion flames / opposites
    5)2-Thrust - single turbo & planetary gears / ying yang
    6)2-Turbo 2 hot
    7)2-Turbo 1 hot
    8)1-Turbine / bigger

    -With Retrodynamic Dextrogiro vs Levogiro Phenomenon Effect. / Rotor-RPM VS InFlow / front to front; "Collision-Interaction Type" - inflow vs blades-gear-move. Technical unique dynamic innovative motion mode. [Retrodynamic Reaction = When the inflow have more velocity the rotor have more RPM Acceleration, with high (XY Position) Momentum] Which the internal flow (and rotor) duplicate its speed, when activated being in a rotor (and inflow) with [inverse] opposite Turns. The Reaction at front of the action. A very strong Novel torque power concept.

    -Non waste parasitic looses for; friction, cooling, lubrication & combustion.
    -Shape-Mass + Rotary-Motion = Inertia-Dynamic / Form-Function Wide [Flat] Cylindrical shape + positive dynamic rotary mass = continue Inertia positive tendency motion. Kinetic Rotating Mass.

    -Combustion 2Two continue circular [Rockets] flames. [ying yang] opposite one to the other. – With 2TWO very long distance INFLOW [inside propulsion] CONDUITS. -4 TURBOS Rotary Total Thrust-Power Regeneration Power System. -Mechanical direct 2two [Small] Planetary Gears at polar position. -Like the Ying Yang Symbol/Concept. -Wide out the Rotor circumference were have much more lever [HIGH Torque] POWER THRUST. -No blade erosion by sand & very low heat target signature profile. -3 points of power thrust; 1-flow way, 2-gear, 3-turbine. *Patent; Dic. 1991 IMPI Mexico #197187 All Rights Reserved. Carlos Barrera.

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