THERMODYNAMICS - LAB MANUAL ( B-TECH KUK)/ I.C. ENGINE

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AIM: - STUDY OF FOUR STROKE DIESEL ENGINE & PETROL ENGINE

FOUR-STROKE CYCLE ENGINES:-
  • FOUR STROKE PETROL ENGINE
  • FOUR STROKE DIESEL ENGINE
FOUR STROKE PETROL ENGINE:-
THE FOUR STROKE-CYCLES REFERS TO ITS USE IN PETROL ENGINES, GAS ENGINES, LIGHT, OIL ENGINE AND HEAVY OIL ENGINES IN WHICH THE MIXTURE OF AIR FUEL ARE DRAWN IN THE ENGINE CYLINDER. SINCE IGNITION IN THESE ENGINES IS DUE TO A SPARK, THEREFORE THEY ARE ALSO CALLED SPARK IGNITION ENGINES.

SUCTION STROKE:-
IN THIS STROKE THE INLET VALVE OPENS AND PROPORTIONATE FUEL-AIR MIXTURE IS SUCKED IN THE ENGINE CYLINDER. THUS THE PISTON MOVES FROM TOP DEAD CENTRE (T.D.C.) TO BOTTOM DEAD CENTRE (B.D.C.). THE EXHAUST VALVE REMAINS CLOSED THROUGH OUT THE STROKE.

COMPRESSION STROKE:-
IN THIS STROKE BOTH THE INLET AND EXHAUST VALVES REMAIN CLOSED DURING THE STROKE. THE PISTON MOVES TOWARDS (T.D.C.) AND COMPRESSES THE ENCLOSED FUEL-AIR MIXTURE DRAWN.
JUST BEFORE THE END OF THIS STROKE THE OPERATING PLUG INITIATES A SPARK WHICH IGNITES THE MIXTURE AND COMBUSTION TAKES PLACE AT CONSTANT PRESSURE.
POWER STROKE OR EXPANSION STROKE: IN THIS STROKE BOTH THE VALVES REMAIN CLOSED DURING THE START OF THIS STROKE BUT WHEN THE PISTON JUST REACHES THE B.D.C. THE EXHAUST VALVE OPENS. WHEN THE MIXTURE IS IGNITED BY THE SPARK PLUG THE HOT GASES ARE PRODUCED WHICH DRIVE OR THROW THE PISTON FROM T.D.C. TO B.D.C. AND THUS THE WORK IS OBTAINED IN THIS STROKE.


FOUR STROKE DIESEL ENGINE:-
FIG FOUR STROKE DIESEL ENGINE



SUCTION STROKE:-
WITH THE MOVEMENT OF THE PISTON FROM T.D.C. TO B.D.C. DURING THIS STROKE, THE INLET VALVE OPENS AND THE AIR AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE IS DRAWN INSIDE THE ENGINE CYLINDER; THE EXHAUST VALVE HOWEVER REMAINS CLOSED. THIS OPERATION IS REPRESENTED BY THE LINE 5-1.


COMPRESSION STROKE:-
THE AIR DRAWN AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE DURING THE SUCTION STROKE IS COMPRESSED TO HIGH PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE AS THE PISTON MOVES FROM B.D.C. TO T.D.C. BOTH THE INLET AND EXHAUST VALVES DO NOT OPEN DURING ANY PART OF THIS STROKE. THIS OPERATION IS REPRESENTED BY 1-2.

POWER STROKE OR EXPANSION STROKE:-
AS THE PISTON STARTS MOVING FROM T.D.C TO B.D.C, THE QUANTITY OF FUEL IS INJECTED INTO THE HOT COMPRESSED AIR IN FINE SPRAYS BY THE FUEL INJECTOR AND IT (FUEL) STARTS BURNING AT CONSTANT PRESSURE SHOWN BY THE LINE 2-3.
AT THE POINT 3 FUEL SUPPLY IS CUT OFF. THE FUEL IS INJECTED AT THE END OF COMPRESSION STROKE BUT IN ACTUAL PRACTICE THE IGNITION OF THE FUEL STARTS BEFORE THE END OF THE COMPRESSION STROKE. THE HOT GASES OF THE CYLINDER EXPAND ADIABATICALLY TO POINT 4. THUS DOING WORK ON THE PISTON.

EXHAUST STROKE:-
THE PISTON MOVES FROM THE B.D.C. TO T.D.C. AND THE EXHAUST GASES ESCAPE TO THE ATMOSPHERE THROUGH THE EXHAUST VALVE. WHEN THE PISTON REACHES THE T.D.C. THE EXHAUST VALVE CLOSES AND THE CYCLE IS COMPLETED. THIS STROKE IS REPRESENTED BY THE LINE 1- 5.

THEORETICAL P- V DIAGRAM OF A FOUR-STROKE DIESEL ENGINE


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