ELECTIVE SEVENTH SEMESTER MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

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Electives I and II
Seventh Semester
(Mechanical Engineering)

ELECTIVE – I

1.         ME 419 E       Advanced Manufacturing Technology
2.                  ME 421 E       Finite Element Method
3.                  ME 423 E       Applied Numerical Techniques and Computer Programming  
4.                  ME 425 E       Gas Dynamics
5.         ME 427 E       Machine Tool Design



ELECTIVE - II

1.                     ME 435 E            Renewable Energy Resources
2.                     ME 437 E            Maintenance Engineering
3.                     ME 439 E            Machine Tool Design
4.                     ME 441 E            Computational Fluid Dynamics
5.                     ME 443 E            Mechatronics Engineering



Elective - I & II will be offered as departmental elective for Mechanical Engineering Students.

B.Tech. (Seventh Semester) Mechanical Engineering
ME 419 E ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
L          T        P/D    Total                                         Theory           : 100 marks
4         I           _          5                                              Sessional       : 5O marks
Duration of Exams. : 03 hours
UNIT I
Hot machining, Machining of Plastics, Unit heads, Plastics cooling, electro forming, Surface Cleaning and Surface Treatments, Surface Coatings, Paint Coating and Slushing, Adhesive Bonds, Adhesive Bond Joints, Adhesives, Surface Coating for Tooling, Graphite Mould Coating, Vacuum Mould Process.
Introduction, Types of Composites materials, Agglomerated Materials, Reinforced materials, Laminates, Surface Coated Materials, Production of Composite Structures, Fabrication of particulate composite Structures, Fabrication of reinforced Composite, Fabrication of Laminates, Machining, Cutting and Joining of Composites.
UNIT II
Introduction, Polymers, Polymerization, Addition of Polymers, Plastics, Types of plastics, Properties of Plastics, Processing of Thermoplastic Plastics, Injection Moulding, Extrusion Process, Sheet forming processes, Processing of Thermosetting Plastics, Compression Moulding, Transfer Moulding, Casting of Plastics, Machining of plastics, other processing methods of plastics
Introduction, casting, thread chasing, Thread Rolling, Die Threading and Tapping, Thread Milling, Thread Measurement and Inspection
UNIT III
Theoretical basis of metal forming, classification of metal forming processes, cold forming, hot working, Warm working, Effect of variables on metal forming processes, Methods of analysis of manufacturing processes, Open Die forging, Rolling Power Rolling, Drawing, Extrusion.

UNIT IV
Introduction, Product Application, Limitation of Die Casting, Die Casting Machines, Molten metal Injection systems, I lot chamber machines, Cold chamber machines, Die casting Design, Design of Die casting Dies, Types of Die casting Dies, Die design, Die material, Die Manufacture, Die Lubrication and Coating, Preheating of Dies, Vacuum Die Casting, Recent trends In Die Casting Process.
Definition, Cost accounting or costing, Elements of costing, cost structures, Estimation of cost elements, Methods of estimating, Data requirements of cost estimating, Steps in making cost estimate, Chief factors in cost estimating, Numerical examples, calculation of machining times, Estimation of total unit time.
Reference and Text Books:
1.     Principles of Manufacturing
-  By J.S.Campbell, Tata McGraw-Hill
2.    Production Engineering Sciences
-  By Pandey and Sinh Standard Pub.
3.    A text book of Production Technology
-  By P.C. Sharma S.Chand & Company.
4.    Manufacturing Materials and Processes
-  By Lindberg Prentice Hall
5.    A text book of Production Engineering
-  By P.C. Sharma S.Chand & Company.



NOTE:  In the semester examination, the examiner will set 8 questions in all, at least two question from each unit, and students will be required to attempt only 5 questions, at least one from each unit.

B. Tech. (Seventh Semester) Mechanical Engineering
ME 421  E      FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

L         T         P/D     Total                                     Theory            :100 marks
4           1                        5                                           Sessional     : 50 marks
Duration of Exams. : 3 hrs
UNIT I
Basic Concept, Historical background, Engineering applications, general description, Comparison with other methods.
Need for weighted-integral forms, relevant" mathematical concepts and formulae, weak formulation of boundary value problems, variational methods, Rayleigh-Ritz method, and weighted residual approach.
UNIT II
Model boundary value problem, finite element discretization, element shapes, sizes and node locations, interpolation functions, derivation of element equations, connectivity, boundary conditions, FEM solution, post-processing, compatibility and completeness requirements, convergence criteria, higher order and isoparametric elements, natural coordinates, Langrange and Hermite polynomials.
UNIT III
External and internal equilibrium equations, one-dimensional stress-strain relations, plane stress and strain problems, axis-symmetric and three dimensional stress-strain problems, strain displacement relations, boundary conditions, compatibility equations, computer programs.
UNIT IV
Variational approach, Galerkin approach, one-dimensional and two-dimensional steady-state problems for conduction, convection and radiation, transient problems.
In viscid incompressible flow, potential function and stream function formulation, incompressible viscous flow, stream function, velocity-pressure and stream function-vorticity formulation, Solution of incompressible and compressible fluid film lubrication problems

Reference and Text Books:
1.                    The Finite Element Method
- By Zienkiewicz, Tata McGraw
2.                   The Finite Element Method for Engineers
-By Huebner, John Wiley
3.                   An Introduction to the Finite Element Method
-By J.N.Reddy, McGraw Hill
NOTE:  In the semester examination, the examiner will set 8 questions in all, at least two question from each unit, and students will be required to attempt only 5 questions, at least one from each unit.

B.Tech. (Seventh Semester) Mechanical Engineering
ME- 423 E APPLIED NUMERICAL TECHNIQUES AND COMPUTER PROGRAMMING

L         T         P/D     Total                                         Theory          :                     100 marks
4                                         1                                           -                                            5                                              Sessional     :                  50 marks
Duration of Exams. : 03 hours

Unit I Interpolation and Curve Fitting : Lagrangian Polynomials, Divided differences, Interpolating with a cubic spline, Bezier Curves and B-Spline Curves, Polynomial approximation of surfaces, Least Square approximations, Flow Chart for Computer Programmes.
Unit II Solving Non-Linear Equations: Bisection Method, Linear Interpolation Methods, Newton’s Methods, Muller’s Methods, Fixed-point Iteration Method, Flow Chart for Computer Programmes.
               Solving Sets of Equations: The Elimination Method, Gauss and Gauss Jordan Methods, Other Direct Methods, Iterative Methods, The Relaxation Methods, Flow Chart for Computer Programmes.
Unit III Numerical Differentiation and Integration: Derivatives from difference tables. High Order Derivative, Extra-polation Techniques. The Trapezoidal Rule, Simpson’s Rules. Flow Chart for Computer Programmes.
               Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations: The Taylor-Series Method, Euler and modified Euler-Methods, Range-Kutta Methods, Miline’s Method. The adams-Moulton Method, Convergence Criteria, Errors and error Propagation. Flow Chart for Computer Programmes.
Unit IV Boundary-Value and Characteristic- Value Problems: The Shooting Method, Rayleigh-Ritz Method, Collocation Method, Galerkin Method, The Power Method for Eigenvalues by Iteration. Flow Chart for Computer Programmes.
                 Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations: (A) P.D.equation representation as a difference equation, Iterative Methods for Laplace’s Equation. The Possion Equation, Derivative Boundary Conditions. ( B) The Crank- Nicolson Method for Parabolic Partial Differential Equations. Flow Chart for Computer Programmes.
Text Books :
1.         Applied Numerical Analysis by Curtis f. Gerald and Patrick O. Wheatley – Published by Addison Wesley.
2.         Introductory Methods of Numerical Methods – S.S. Sastry, PHI, New Delhi.
Reference Books :
1.         MATHEMATICA – A system for doing mathematics by Computer by Wolfram, Stephen – Published by Addition – Wesley.
2.         Applied Numerical Methods by Camahan, Brice,Et.al, Published by Wiley, New York.
3.         Numerical Solution of partial differential equations by Smith, G.D. Published by Oxford University Press London.
4.         Iterative Methods for the solution of Equations by J.F. Traub – Published by Prentice Hall.

5.         Numerical Methods in Engineering and Science by B.S. Grewal- Published by Khanna
Publishers.
6.         Numerical Methods in Engineering by M.G. Salvadori and M.L. Baron- Published by Prentice Hall India.
Note :
1.         The Instructor of the course may cover the use of software MATHEMATICA, in the tutorial class.
2.         In the semester examination, the examiner will set eight questions, at least Two question from each unit. The students will be required to attend only 5 questions.

B.Tech. (Seventh Semester) Mechanical Engineering
MET-425                                       GAS DYANAMICS

L        T         P         total                                       Sessional Marks   : 50
4         1                      5                                              Theory:                       100
Duration of Exam: 3 Hrs.
Unit - I
Introduction, units, thermodynamics concepts for control mass analysis flow dimensionality and average velocity comment on entropy-pressure energy    equation. The stagnation concept, stagnation pressure, energy equation,  momentum   equation problems.
Introduction, Objectives, speed of propagation of pressure front, Mach Number, sonic velocity, field due to a moving source of disturbance, mach cone mach, angle equation for a perfect gas in terms of mach. number. h. s.& t. s. diagram problems.
UNIT II
Introduction, adiabatic flow with and without losses, the reference concept, isentropic tables, conversant & divergent nozzles, diffuser performance, frictional effects on nozzle flow problems.

Introduction, shock analysis-general fluid, working equations for perfect gas, normal-shocks tables, shocks in nozzles, supersonic wind tunnel operation, thermodynamic directions of a normal shock, Rankins-Hugoniat relation, strength of shock, operation of nozzles, problems.

UNIT III
Introduction, normal shocks tangential velocity superposition -oblique shocks, oblique-shocks, analysis, oblique-shock tables and charge, boundary conditions of flow direction, boundary condition of pressure equilibrium, introduction to Prandtl Mayer expansion, problems.
Introduction, analysis for general fluid, working equations for a perfect gas, reference state and fanno tables, application, correlation with shocks, friction chocking, Rayleigh flow. Analysis for a general fluid, working equations for a perfect gas reference state and Rayleigh tables, applications, correlation with shocks, thermal shocking, and summary problems

UNIT IV
Introduction, Brayton cycle, propulsion engines. thrust power and efficiency,     thrust consideration power consideration, power conskloiftlion and   efficiency consideration, open Brayton cycle for propulsion   systems,   turbojet,   turbo propulsion, ram jet, pulse jet, numerical.

Text Books:
1.                   Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics- YAHA, S.M. TMI-I, India.
2.                   Fluid Mechanics-A.K. Mohanty, Prentice Hall of India.
Reference Books:
1.                                        Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics- YUAN, S.W. Prentice Hall of India.
2.                   Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics - Robert D. Zucker, Met tire Publication.
3.                   Gas Dynamics -E-., Radha Krishnan, prentice Hall of India.
4.                   Gas Dynamics Vol. -I Zucrotuf, Wiley.
5.                   Gas Dynamics - Shapiro Wiley.


NOTE:  In the semester examination, the examiner will set 8 questions in all, at least two question from each unit, and students will be required to attempt only 5 questions, at least one from each unit.

                           ME 427 E MACHINE TOOL DESIGN
                       
                          L          T         P/D    TOTAL                                Sessional marks: 50 Marks
4             1           -             5                                      Theory    : 100 Marks
Duration of Exam. : 3 hrs.
                           UNIT I
Definition and classification, Corking and auxiliary motion in m/c tools, parameters of working motion, machine tool drive, selection of electric motor, hydraulic and mechanical transmission and their elements, general requirement of m/c tool design. Engineering design process for m/c tool, and techno-economical consideration for design of new m/c tool.
Aims, stepped and stepless speed regulation, design of speed and feed gear box, m/c tool drives using multiple speed motors, gear box kinematics design, gearing diagram, no. of teeth, no. of teeth on gears in the gear train, classification speed and feed boxes, numerical problems.
UNIT II
Function and requirements, design criteria, criteria of selection of materials, static arid dynamic stiffness, profiles for m/c tool structure, stiffness, design procedure for m/c tool structure, numerical problems.
Function and types, profiles, material and clearance in slide ways, analysis of design of slide ways for wear and stiffness design of hydrostatic guide ways, aerostatic slide ways and antifriction guide or sliding friction power screws for wear, strength, friction bucking stability design of rolling friction, power screw for stiffness, numerical problems.
UNIT III
 Function and requirements, material for spindle, effect of m/c tool compliance on machining accuracy, design of spindles for bending, permissible deflection strength, optimum spacing for spindle support, antifriction and different types of sliding bearings and their general characteristic, air lubricated bearing, numerical problems.

UNIT IV
Equivalent Elastic System (EES), general procedure for accessing dynamic stability of EES cutting process closed loop system dynamic characteristics of elements, systems, EES and culling process, stability analysis, forced vibration of machine tools.

Function requirements and classification, control system for forming and auxiliary motion, manual control systems, ergonomic considerations, automatic control systems and adaptive control system.

Text Books:                              
v  Machine Tool Design & Numerical Control by N.K. Mehta, Published by TMH.
v  Production Technology by R.K. Jain, Published by Khanna Publishers.
References Books:
1.                                         Design of M/c Tool by S.K. Basu, Allied Publisher, New Delhi.
2.                    Principles of M/c Tool by Ballacharya A. and Sen. G.C., Published by New Central
             Book Agency, Calcutta.
3.                    Machine Tool Design -Vol-IV- by Acherkean N., Published by Mir Publication.
4.                    Design principles of Metal Cutting Machine Tools by Koenigsberyer F., 
             Published by Pergrnan Press, Oxford.

NOTE:  In the semester examination, the examiner will set 8 questions in all, at least two question from each unit, and students will be required to attempt only 5 questions, at least one from each unit.



ME 435 E             RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES
L          T       P        Total                                                     Sessional : 50 marks
4 1  5                             Theory:       100 marks
Duration of Exam : 3 hrs.

UNIT-I
Introduction and Essential of Fluid Mechanics and Meat Transfer Fundamentals and scientific principles of renewable energy resources, technical and social implications, Bernoulli's, equation, conservation of momentum, viscosity, turbulence, friction and pipe flow, heat circuit analysis and terminology, conductive, convective and radiative heat transfers, properties of transparent materials, heat transfer by mass transport, multimode heat transfer and circuit analysis, problems.

UNIT-II
Extraterrestrial solar radiation, components of radiation, geometry of earth and sun, geometry of collector arid the solar beam, effects of earth's atmosphere, measurements of solar radiation, calculation of heat balance for a solar collector, type of water heaters, selective surfaces, crop heaters, space heating, space cooling, water desalination, solar ponds, solar concentrators, electric power system, problems.
Introduction,   the   silicon   p-n  junction,   photon   absorption   solar radiation input, photovoltaic circuit properties and loads, limits to cell efficiency,  solar cell construction    type and adaptations of photovoltaic, other types of photoelectric and thermo electric generation, problems.
UNIT III
Principles of hydro power, assessing the resource for small installations, an impulse turbine, reaction turbines, hydro electric systems, the hydraulic rain pump, wind turbine types and terms, linear momentum and basic theory, dynamic matching, steam tube theory, characteristics of the wind, power extraction by a turbine, electricity generation, mechanical power, problems.
Introduction, tropic level photosynthesis, photosynthesis at the plant level,   thermodynamic   considerations,   photosynthesis,   molecularlevel photosynthesis, synthetic photosynthesis, bio fuel classification, bio-mass production for energy farming, direct combustion for heat, pyrolysis (destructive distillation), alcoholic fermentation, anaerobic digestion for bio-gas, agrochemical fuel extractions, problems.
UNIT IV
Introduction, wave motion, wave energy and power, ;wave patterns, devices, the causes of tides, enhancement of tides flow power, tidal range power, world range power sites, problems.

Principles of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), heal exchangers, pumping requirements, other practical considerations, introduction to geothermal energy, geophysics, dry rock and hot aquifer analysis, harnessing geothermal resources, problems.
Text Books:
Renewable Energy Rsources by John W. Twidell and Anthony D. Weir, published by E.& F. N. Spon Ltd.Lndon.

NOTE:  In the semester examination, the examiner will set 8 questions in all, at least two question from each unit, and students will be required to attempt only 5 questions, at least one from each unit.

B.Tech. (Seventh Semester) Mechanical Engineering
ME 437 E MAINTENANCE ENGINEERING

LT P                                                Total    Sessional : 50 marks
4               1-5                                                 Theory   : 100 marks
Duration of Exam : 3 his.
UNIT I
Evolution of maintenance, objective of maintenance, maintenance policies and philosophies, maintenance concept, maintenance management & terotechnology, relationship with other functional areas, importance of maintenance, elements of good maintenance, economics of maintenance, training and safety aspects in maintenance.
Classification of maintenance programs, corrective preventive and predictive maintenance, comparison of maintenance programs, preventive maintenance-concept, functions, benefits, limitations.
UNIT II
Objectives, what to monitor, when to monitor, principles of CBM, condition based maintenance techniques, manual inspections, performance monitoring, vibration monitoring, current monitoring, coil debris/spectroscopy, thermography and corrosion monitoring, steps in implementation of CBM, benefits of CBM.
 RCM   logic, maintenance   and   RCM, benefits   of RCM, total productive maintenance   (TPM), introduction, key   supporting elements of TPM, methodology, evaluation and benefits.
UNIT III
Purpose   and   challenges:   Techniques,   visual   aids-boroscopes, endoscopes, fiber optics scanners, magnetic particles inspection, liquid penetrants, eddy current, ultrasonic radiography, selection of NDT   technique,    metrits/demerits   and   applications   of   various techniques.
Basic ingredients, basic steps in maintenance management, maintenance planning and control system, documentation, maintenance-productivity areas for improvement

UNIT IV
Techniques for improvement of operational reliability, safety and availability of machines and production systems, maintainability criteria, checklist to assess the maintainability of a system, maintainability programs, objectives, key issues in availability improvements program, fault diagnosis, Pareto principle Ishikawa diagram.

Data processing systems for integrated maintenance, maintenance information and reporting systems.


Text Books:
1.        Maintenance Planning and Control by Higgin L.R., McGiaw Hill Book Co., 
       1900.
2.       Maintenance Planning and Control by Kelly Anthony, East West Press        
       Private Ltd, New Delhi, 1991.
3.       Maintainability principle and practices by Blanchard B.S. and Lowey E.E.        
       McGrawHill Book co.
4.       Practical NOT by Raj B. Jaya Kumar T and Thavasimulyi K., Narora Publishing  
       House, New Delhi, 1996.
5.        Engineering  Maintenance Management by Niebel  Benjamin W. Marcel Dekher, 
       1994.


NOTE:  In the semester examination, the examiner will set 8 questions in all, at least two question from each unit, and students will be required to attempt only 5 questions, at least one from each unit.


B-Tech. (Seventh Semester) Mechanical Engineering
ME 439 E                 CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING

L         T         P/D     Total                                     Theory          : 100 marks
4          1          -           5                                              Sessional     : 50 marks
Duration of Exams. : 03 hours
UNIT I
Definition of cryogenics, physical properties of various cryogenic fluids and industrial application
UNIT II
Types of insulations, vacuum insulation: gas filled powders and fibrous materials, solid forms, comparison of various insulating materials.
UNIT III
Mechanical properties; Specific heat; Thermal expansion; Electrical resistance; Thermal conductivity; Emissivity; Reflectivity and Absorptive; Thermo-electric e. m. f.
UNIT IV
Types of insulated storage containers, transport techniques, various design considerations, safety aspects of cryogenic systems, flammability hazards, high-pressure gas hazards etc., design and fabrication of transfer line, transfer through non-insulated lines, liquid line indicators, valves for cryogenic "liquids, pumping of cryogenic liquids, other allied equipment.
Reference and Text Books:
Cryogenic Systems  -           by  IJaiion
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning-       By Spark and Dilio

NOTE:  In the semester examination, the examiner will set 8 questions in all, at least two question from each unit, and students will be required to attempt only 5 questions, at least one from each unit.

 B. Tech. (Seventh Semester) Mechanical Engineering


ME 441 E    COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS
L         T          P/D     Total                                      Theory:          100 marks
4          1          -           5                                              Sessional: 50 marks
Duration of Exams. : 3 hrs
UNIT I
Methods of prediction: comparison of experimental investigation Vs theoretical calculation; Mathematical description of physical phenomena; significance of governing differential equations; the general form of governing differential equation.
Classification of problems: Physical classification: Equilibrium problems and Marching problems; Mathematical classification: Elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic partial differential equations; Nature of co-ordinates; one­ way and two-way co-ordinates; Proper choice of co-ordinates.
UNIT II
The concept of discretisation; Finite differences; Taylor series formulation; Finite difference discretisation of ordinary and partial derivatives; Truncation error, round-off error, discretisation error; Consistency and stability of numerical schemes; Variation formulation; Method of weighted Residuals, control volume formulation.

UNIT III
Steady one- dimensional Conduction, The inter-face conductivity, Non linearity, Source-Term Linearizsation, Types of Boundary Conditions. Unsteady one-dimensional Conduction: Explicit, Crank-Nicolson and Fully Implicit scheme's Discretisation of two and three-dimensional problems, Stability analysis.

UNIT IV
Steady one dimensional convection and diffusion, The up wind scheme, Generalized Formulation, Discretisation equation for two and three dimensional problems, The outflow Boundary condition, false Diffusion.
Basic difficulty, Vorticity Based methods, Representation of the continuity equation, the staggered grid: the momentum equations, the pressure velocity corrections, and SIMPLE algorithm.
Reference and Text Books:
1.      Computational Fluid Dynamics
- By Anderson, McGraw-Hill
2.     Numerical Heat Transfer and fluid flow
                                                                   - By Patankar, McGraw-Hill
NOTE:  In the semester examination, the examiner will set 8 questions in all, at least two questions from each unit, and students will be required to attempt only 5 questions, at least one from each unit.
          
B.Tech. (Seventh Semester) Mechanical Engineering
ME 443E        MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING
L        T     P      Total                                                        Sessional:     50 marks
41-5                                                            Theory                  100 marks
Duration of Exam: 3 hrs.
UNIT I
What is mechatronics? A measurement system with its constituent elements, open and closed loop systems, sequential controllers, micro processor based controllers, the Mechatronic approach.
A review of displacement, position velocity, motion, force fluid pressure, liquid flow, liquid level, temperature, light sensors/along with performance terminology, selection of sensors, input data by switches, signal conditioning, brief review of operational amplifier, projection, filtering, wheat stone bridge, digital signals, multiplexers, data acquisition, digital signal processing, pulse modulation, data presentation systems, displays, data presentation elements, magnetic recording, data acquisition systems, testing £ calibration, problems.
UNIT II
Pneumatic and hydraulic systems, directional control valves, valve symbols, pressure control valves, cylinder sequencing, process control valves, rotary actuators, mechanical systems -types of motion, kinematic chains, cams, gear trains, Ratchet & Pawl, belt and chain drives, bearings, mechanical aspects of motor selection, electrical systems, mechanical and solid state switches, solenoids, D.C. & A.C moto4rs, stepper motors, problems.
UNITIII
Continuous and discrete process- lag, steady state error, control modes, two step mode, proportional mode-electronic proportional controllers, derivative control- proportional plus derivative control, integral control-proportional plus integral control, PID controller-operational amplifier PID circuits, digital controllers -implementing control modes, control system performance, controller tuning, process, reaction method and ultimate cycle method, velocity control, adaptive control, problems.
Scale, a pick and place robot, automatic camera, engine management system and bar code recorder.

UNIT IV
A review of number systems and logic gates, Boolean algebra, Karnaugh maps, sequential logic basic structure of programmable logic controllers, input/output processing, programming mnemonics; timest, internal relays and counters, master and jump controls, data handling, analog input/output, selection of a PLC, PROBLEMS.
Control, microcomputer structure, micro-controllers, applications, programming languages, instruction sets, assembly language programs, subroutines, Why C Language? A review of program structure, branches, loops, arrays, pointers, examples of programs, interfacing, input/output, interface requirements. Peripheral interface adapters, serial communication interface, examples of interfacing, problems.
Text Book:
1.        Mechatronics by W. Bolton, published by Addition Wesley.

NOTE:  In the semester examination, the examiner will set 8 questions in all, at least two question from each unit, and students will be required to attempt only 5 questions, at least one from each unit.




                        
































Electives (I) and Electives (II) Eight Semesters
(Mechanical Engineering)
ELECTIVE – III

ME 420 E   Non Conventional Manufacturing
ME 422 E    Industrial Robotics
ME 424 E    Manufacturing Management
ME 426 E    Total Quality Management
ME 428 E   Piping Engineering





ELECTIVE - IV

ME 430 E   Energy Management
ME 432  E      Management Information System
ME 434 E    Pneumatics & Hydraulics Control
ME 436  E       Design of Air conditioning Systems
ME 438  E       Automatic controls

Elective –III & IV will be offered as departmental elective for Mechanical Engineering Students.





B.Tech. (Eighth Semester) Mechanical Engineering

 ME 420 E   Non-Conventional Manufacturing
L             T       P/D     Total                                                Theory : 100 marks
4 1-       5                                                Sessional : 50 marks
Duration of Exams. : 03 hour
UNIT I
Unconventional machining processes, Rapid prototyping processes, their classification, considerations in process selection.
Ultrasonic Machining
Elements of process, design of cutting tool, metal removal mechanism, effect of parameters, economic considerations, limitations and applications, surface finish.

UNIT II

Electrochemical Machining
Elements of process, process chemistry, metal removal mechanism, tool design, accuracy, surface finish and work material characteristics, economics advantages, limitations and applications, Electrochemical grinding, debarring and honing, Chemical machining.
Electric Discharge Machining
Principle and mechanism of metal removal, generators, electrode feed control, electrode material, tool electrode design, EDM wire cutting, surface finish, accuracy and applications.
UNIT III
Jet Machining
Principal and metal removal mechanism of abrasive and water jet machining, process variables, design of nozzle, advantages, limitations and applications.
Plasma arc machining, Electron beam machining, laser beam machining, their principles and metal removal mechanism, process parameters, advantages and limitations, applications.
UNIT IV
Rapid Prototyping
Fundamentals, process chain, physics of processes, principles and process mechanism of SLA, SGC, LOM, FDM and SLS processes, their advantages and limitations, applications of RP processes, RP data formats, STL file format, STL file problems, STL file repair, other translators and formats.
Rapid Tooling Process
Introduction, fundamentals, classification, indirect RT processes, Principles of Silicone Rubber Molding, Epoxy Tooling, Spray Metal Tooling, Pattern for Investment Casting, Vacuum Casting, and Vacuum forming processes, direct RT processes, Shape Deposition manufacturing, their advantages, limitations and applications.
Reference and Text Books:
1.            Modern machining processes
-By P.C. Pandey and M.S. Shan, 1 Ml I.
2.          Machining Science
-By Ghosh and Mallik, Affiliated East West
3.          Nontraditional Manufacturing processes
-By G.F. Benedict, Maicel Dekker.
4.          Advanced Methods of Machining
-By J.A. McGeongh, Chapman and Hall.
5.           Electrochemical Machining of Metals
-By Rurnyantsev and Davydov, Mir Publis.
6.                    Rapid prototyping: Principles and applications in Manufacturing

NOTE:  In the semester examination, the examiner will set 8 questions in all, at least two question from each unit, and students will be required to attempt only 5 questions, at least one from each unit.
B.Tech ( Eighth Semester) Mechanical Engineering
ME  422 E   Industrial Robotics
L          T         P/D     total                                  Theory                      : 100 marks
4         1                            5                                Sessional                  : 50 marks
Duration of Exams. : 03 hours

UNIT I
Automation   and   robots, Robot   classification, Applications, Robot specifications.
Dot and Cross products, Coordinate frames, , Homogeneous coordinates, Link Coordinates, The arm equation, Five-axis articulated robot (Rhino XR-3), Four-axis SCARA robot (Adept One), Six-axis articulated robot (Intelledex 660).
UNIT II
The Inverse kinematics problem, General properties of solutions, Tool Configuration, Inverse kinematics of Five-axis articulated robot (Rhino XR-3), Inverse Kinematics of Four-axis SCARA robot (Adept One), inverse kinematics of Six-axis articulated robot (Intelledex 660), and Inverse kinematics of a three-axis planar articulated robot, a robotic work cell.
Workspace analysis, Work envelope of a five-axis articulated robot (Rhino XR-3), Work envelope of a four-axis SCARA robot (Adept One), Workspace fixtures, The pick and place operations, Continuous path motion, Interpolated motion, Straight line motion.
UNIT III
The tool configuration and Jacobean matrix, Joint space singularities, Generalized inverses, Resolved motion rate controls, rate control of redundant robots, rate control using {1)-inverses, The manipulator Jacobean, Induced joint torque and forces.
Lagrange's equation, Kinetic and potential energy, Generalized force, Lagrange-Euler dynamic model, Dynamic model of a two-axis planner articulated robot, Dynamic model of a three-axis SCARA robot, Direct and inverse dynamics, Recursive Newton-Euler formulation, Dynamic model of a one-axis robot (inverted pendulum).
UNIT IV
The control problem, State equations, Constant solutions, Linear feedback systems, Single axis PID control, PD gravity control, Computed torque control, Variable structure control
image representation, template matching, polyhedral objects, shape analysis, Segmentation, Iterative processing, Perspective transformations, Structured Illumination, Camera Calibration.
Task level programming, Uncertainty, Configuration space, Gross motion planning, Grasp Planning, Fine motion planning, Simulation of planar motion.
Reference and Text Books:
1.          Industrial Robotics
-By M.P. Groover, McGraw Hill
2.          Industrial Robotics and Automation
-By S.R.Deb Tata McGraw Hill

NOTE:  In the semester examination, the examiner will set 8 questions in all, at least two question from each unit, and students will be required to attempt only 5 questions, at least one from each unit
B.Tech (Eighth semester) Mechanical Engineering
ME 424 E MANUFACTURING MANAGEMENT

L   T    P                                                                                  Theory : 100 Marks
4   1     -                                                                                   Sessional : 50 Marks
Total : 150 Marks
Duration of Exam: 3 Hrs
                                               
Unit I Manufacturing Systems Designs: Definition, Systems, Subsystems, Systems Approach Fundamentals, Systems Approach for designing, Manufacturing Systems, Systematic Layout Planning (SLP), Computerized Plant Layout-CRAFT, ALDEP, CORELAP, Assembly Line balancing, Problems and solutions of assembly lines, Group Technology & Cellular Systems, Classification & Grouping, overview of FMS. Strategic consideration for comparison of various systems.
Manufacturing Systems Economics: Concept of time value of money, Preparation
of time profile of project, Single payment, Equal Series payment, various machine and project selection & evaluation techniques: Payback period, Present worth, Equivalent annual cost, Cost- benefit ratio, Evaluation for both equal & unequal life. Depreciation concept various methods-straight line, declining balance, Sum of the digits, Sinking fund.
Unit II New Product Development (NPD): Product Development, Customer Need, Strategies for New Product Development, Product life cycle, Product status. Corporate Design Strategies, Japanese Approach to NPD. PUGH total Design approach, PAHL & BEITZ Approach, Project Approach, Cross functional Integration –Design, manufacturing, Marketing, Concurrent Engineering, Modular Design, Standardization Value Engineering & Analysis.
Manufacturing Planning & Control Systems: Overview of Aggregate Planning Models, Linear Decision Rules, Management Coefficient, Direct Search Methods, Master Production Schedule, Modular Bill and Materials, Capacity planning & control, language, medium range, short range capacity planning, Toyota Production System, Just- in Time (JIT), Manufacturing –Philosophy, Elements, KANBAN, effects on layout, workers & vendors, optimized production technology (OPT).
Unit III Forecasting Methods: Forecasting Framework, Forecasting cost and accuracy, Forecasting Uses and Methods – Delphi, Exponential Smoothing, Forecasting Errors – MAD, Regression Methods-Linear Model for single & multiple variables, Brief idea of computerized forecasting systems.
Material Requirements Planning (MRP): Definition of MRP systems. MRP versus Order point, MRP Elements, Types of MRP – MRP I & II. Structured Bill of Materials. Regenerative & Net change MRP, Operating an MRP, Integration of Production & Inventory Control.
Unit IV Maintenance & Reliability: Concept of preventive & breakdown maintenance, maintenance cost, optimal preventive maintenance simple replacement models-individual and group replacement, MAPI - methods, reliability definitions, failure analysis and curve, systems reliability- series parallel, redundancy, methods of improving reliability, MTBF, MTTR, Maintainability, availability, brief concept of terotechnology.



Text books:
1. Operations management – Schoroeder, Mc Graw Hill International
2. Production operations management – chary, TMH, New Delhi.
Reference books:
1. Production Operations Management – Adam & Ebert, PHI, New Delhi
2. Operational Management –Monks, Mcgraw Hill, Int.
3. Production & Operations Management – I. Hill, Prentice Hall Int.
4. Production Planning & Inventory Control – Narasimham etal, PHI, New Delhi
5. Production & Operation Management- Panneerselvam, PHI, New Delhi
6. Managing for Total Quality-Logothetis, PHI, New Delhi
7. Concept of Reliability Engineering –L.S. Srinath, Affiliated East West.
8. Revolutionizing Product Development – Wheelwright & Clark, Free press.
9. Management In Engineering – Freeman-Ball & Balkwill, PHI, New Delhi.
10. Production & operations management – Martinich, John Wiely , New Delhi.
11. The goal by Eliyahu M. Goldratt & Jeff Cox, Productivity Press India Ltd, 
      Bangalore
12. Toyota Production System by Taichi Ohno, Productivity Press India Ltd,  
      Bangalore

Note :In the semester examination the examiner will set 8 questions, at least two question from each unit. Students will be required to attempt five questions.





















B. Tech (Eighth Semester) Mechanical Engineering
ME-426 E Total Quality Management
L         T         P/D     Total                            Theory                       : 100 marks
4          1                                                   5                                 Sessional                  : 50 marks
Duration of Exams. : 03 hours
UNIT I
Concept of Quality, Quality as the basis of market competition, Historical review, Quality philosophy of Deming, Juran, crossby etc., Obstacles, Integrating productivity and Quality.
Organization of Quality, Quality council, Total Quality Culture, Quality leadership, Quality awards, Total employee involvement, Quality circles, Attitude of top management, executives and workers, Operators responsibility of Quality, causes of operator’s errors, Motivation.


UNIT II
Introduction lo TQM, Models for TQM. TQM implementation, Advantages of TQM, Obstacles to TQM, TQM in service sector.
Concepts of Quality function deployment, cause and effect diagram, SWOT analysis, Continuous improvement, PDCA cycle, Supplier partnership, Supplier certification, Pareto diagram, Scalier diagram, Benchmarking, Taquchi's Quality Engineering, Failure mode and effect analysis, Total productive maintenance, Introduction to JIT, JIT Quality management, SQC, SPC.DPR, Kaizen, Six sigma concept.

UNIT III
Introduction  to  ISO  9000  series  of  standards,     other quality  systems,
Implementation,    Documentation,    Internal    audits',    Registration,    Closing
Comments.
UNIT IV
Beyond ISO 9000 horizon,    Introduction    to ISO 14000, Series standards,
Concepts of ISO 14001, EMS Benefits, ISO 10011- 10014, Quality systems .
Suggested Books:
1.       Total Quality Management:                              By Bosterfied el al.
          Pearson Education India, 2001.
 2.        The Essence of Total Quality Management: By Johan Bank,
     Prentice Hall of India 2000.
3.         Managing for Total Quality: By Logothelis
Prentice Hall of India, 2000.
4.          Total Quality Management:       By Sundra Raju,
  Tala Mcgraw Hills publishing company, 1997.
5.          TQM and ISO 9000:                   By K.C. Arora,
                                   S.K. Kalaria & Sons 2000.
6.          ISO 9000 Quality System:          By Dalde & Saurabh,
                                                                      Standard Publishing, 1994.

NOTE:  In the semester examination, the examiner will set 8 questions in all, at least two question from each unit, and students will be required to attempt only 5 questions, at least one from each unit

































B.Tech. (Eight Semester) Mechanical Engineering
ME428 E Piping Engineering
  L         T         P/D     Total                                         Theory       : 100 marks
41-              5                                             Sessional    : 50 marks
   Duration of Exams. : 03 hours
UNIT I
Basics of fluid mechanics: viscosity, pressure, head, and hydraulic gradient, types of fluid flow, Remolds number. Euler's equation of motion, continuity equation, Bernoulli's equation, Gas laws and compressibility factor.
Determination of pipe size and pressure losses, thrusts in pipe line, water hammer in pipeline, design of gas pipeline, measurement of flow in pipes, Transportation of solid materials through pipelines.
UNIT II
Selection of materials, physical properties of pipe materials, recommended pipe materials
Standards and specifications, steel pipes, steel pipe fittings, cast iron pipes, cast iron fittings, joining of cast iron pipes, tubes of other materials, design of flanges and flanged joints
UNIT III
Load on structural supports, supporting structures of pipeline, pipe supports design considerations, platforms and ladders, foundation, supporting span of overhead pipe line, stiffening ribs, pipe clamping and supporting devices, flexible hanger supports
Valves, function of valves, valve materials and method of construction, pressure drop involves, valve size, Types of valves, valve fittings.
Codes and standards, piping construction, welding joints in pipe line, welding processes used in pipe fabrication, preparation of pipe edged,

UNIT IV
Piping systems, pipe expansion, methods of compensation, thermal force calculation, Permissible equivalent stresses by additional external loads, expansion devices, calculation of anchor force using a bellow, bellow material and life, use of hinged compensators
Kellogg method, Method of analysis, multi-line pipeline with two-fixed end
Corrosion control In critical task, corrosion process, types of corrosion, fluid and cavitation corrosion.
Reference and Text Books:
1.                       Handbook of piping design    -   By Sahu, New age Int. Pubs.
2.                      Design of piping systems         -     By Kellogg, Wiley & sons

NOTE:  In the semester examination, the examiner will set 8 questions in all, at least two question from each unit, and students will be required to attempt only 5 questions, at least one from each unit




B. Tech (Eighth Semester) Mechanical Engineering
ME 430 E   ENERGY MANAGEMENT
L         T       P         Total                Sessional Marks   :           50 Marks
4-1- 5              Theory                       :              100 Marks
Duration of Exams:        3 Mrs.
UNIT I
Inerlialion phase, audit and analysis phase, implementation phase, general methodology for building and site energy audit, site survey, methodology,   site  survey-electrical  system,     steam   and  water systems, building survey methodology, basic energy audit instrumentation, measurement for building surveys.
General principles, the requirements for human comfort, description of typical systems-dual duct HVAC system. Multi zone HVAC systems, variable and volume systems, terminal repeat system, evaporative systems, package system, basic principle governing HVAC system, package system, basic principle governing HVAC system operation, energy management opportunities in HVAC systems, modeling of heating and cooling loads in buildings, problems.

UNIT II

General principles, illumination and human comfort, basic principles of lighting system, typical-illumination syst3em and equipment, fundamentals of single phase and 3 phase A.C. circuits, energy management opportunities for lighting systems, motors and electrical heat, electrical and analysis and their parameters, peak, demand control, problems.
General principles, process heat, combustion, energy saving in condensate return, steam generation and distribution, automotive fuel control, hot water and water pumping, direct and indirect fired furnaces over, process electricity, other process energy forms-compressed air and manufacturing processes, problems.
UNIT III
General consideration, life cycle costing, break-even analysis, cost of money, benefit/cost analysis, pay back period analysis, prospective rate of to return, problems.
Environmental conformation, passive design, conservation building envelope design consideration, integration of building system, energy storage problems.
UNIT IV
Energy   management   principle   involving   computers, basics   of computer use, analysis-engineering   and   economic calculations, simulation, forecast,   CAD/CAM   controls  - microprocessor and minicomputers, building cycling and control, peak demand limiting and control: industrial power management, problems.
Text Book:                                                                                                                                                  
1. Energy Management Principles by Criag B. Smith, Published by Pergamon Press.
2. Energy systems and developments – Jyoti Parikh, Oxford University Press.
Reference Books:
  1. Energy – resources, demand and conservation with reference to India – Chaman Kashkari, Tata Mc Graw Hill Co. Ltd.
  2. Integrated renewable energy for rural development – Proceedings of   
      Natural solar energy convention, Calcutta.
NOTE:  In the semester examination, the examiner will set 8 questions in all, at least two question from each unit, and students will be required to attempt only 5 questions, at least one from each unit
B.Tech (Eighth Semester) Mechanical Engineering
                          ME 432 E    MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM
L         T         P/D     Total                              Theory                        : 100 marks
4          1                         5                                 Sessional                   : 50 marks
Duration of Exams. : 03 hums
UNIT I
What is MIS? Decision support systems, systems approach, the systems view of business, MIS, MIS organization within the company management organizational theory and the systems approach. Development of organizational theory, management and organizational behavior, management information and the system approach.
Evolution of an information systems, basic information systems, decision making and MIS, MIS as a technique for making programmed decision assisting information systems ( r ) strategic and project planning for MIS : General business planning, appropriate MIS planning-general, MIS planning -details.
UNIT II
Define the problems, set system objectives, establish system constraints, determine information needs, determine information sources, develop alternative conceptual ;designs and select one document the system concept, prepare the conceptual ;design report.
UNIT III
Inform and involve the organization, aim of detailed design, project management of MIS detailed design, identify dominant and trade off criteria, define the subsystems, Sketch the detailed operating subsystems and information flow. Determine the degree of automation of each operation, inform and involve the organization again, inputs, and processing, early system testing, software, hardware and tools, propose an organization to operate the system, document the detailed design, revisit the manager -user.
UNIT IV
Plan the Implementation , acquire floor space and plan space layouts, organize for implementation, develop, procedures for implementation, train (ho operating personnel, computer related acquisitions, develop forms for data collection and information dissemination, develop the files, test the system, cutover, document the system, evaluate the MIS control and maintain the system ( r). Pitfalls in MIS development : Fundamental weakness, soft spots in planning, design problems, implementation: The TARPIT.
Text Books:
I.   Management   Information   system   by   W.S.   JawadeKar - Tata McGraw Hill.
NOTE:  In the semester examination, the examiner will set 8 questions in all, at least two questions from each unit, and students will be required to attempt only 5 questions, at least one from each unit





B. Tech (Eighth Semester) Mechanical Engineering
ME 434 E   Pneumatics & Hydraulics Control
L          T       P/D     Total                                         Theory                        : 100 marks
4            1            -             5                                            Sessional                   : 50 marks
                                                                      Duration of Exams. : 03 hours
UNIT I
Hydraulic systems, pneumatic systems, uses of fluid power, fluid power at work, standard symbols for hydraulic & pneumatic components -ANS
Graphical symbols -composite symbols.
Pressure applied in one direction, pressure applied in both directions, pressure applied and intensified in both directions, advantages of pressure boosters installation, causes of failure of boosters, maintenance
Positive displacement or pressure type reciprocating compressors, velocity or dynamic type compressors, location and installation, air intake, after cooler, air receivers, safety valves, compressor regulators or controls planning a compressed air plant, compressor selection.
UNIT II
Petroleum base fluids, synthetic base fluids, quantity requirement, maintenance, selection of hydraulic fluid, specific weight, viscosity, Say-bolt universal viscometer, viscosity problems, viscosity index, lubricating value, pour point, oxidation and contamination.
Rigid pipe, semi-rigid, flexible piping, general features of piping installation, planning a compressed air distribution system, Installation of rigid, semi-rigid and flexible piping -manifolds, causes of piping failures.
General features, air filters, pressure regulators, lubricators, combination units, protection of filters and lubricator bowls, mufflers.
UNIT III
Two-way valves, manual control, manual operation, mechanical operation, electrical operation, pilot control, installation, causes of failure, repair & maintenance, three way valves, actuation, maintenance of three way valves four way valves, installation & maintenance.
Types of flow control, parts names, installation causes of failure, repair and maintenance, pressure relief valves, sequence valves, unloading valves, other types of pressure controls.
General types, characteristics of air motors, General features of pneumatic tools, drills, hammers, hoists, rock drills and paving breakers.

UNIT IV
Gear type motors, Vane type motors, piston type motors, split speed, Schematic diagrams of various types of pneumatic and hydraulic circuits, common causes of failure, dirt, heat, misapplication, improper fluids, faulty installation, maintenance, improperly designed circuits.
Control systems, differential sensing or error-detecting devices, types of servo systems, characteristics of servo-systems.
Reference and Text Books:
1.     Pneumatics and Hydraulics
-By Stewart, Taraporevala Sons & Co. Pvt. Ltd,
2.    Industrial Hydraulics
-By Pippinger & Hicks, McGraw Hill, New York.
3.    Hydraulic and Pneumatic Power for Production
-By H.L. Stewart, Industrial Press Inc, New York.
4.    Hydraulic Servo Systems
-By M. Guillon.

      
NOTE:  In the semester examination, the examiner will set 8 questions in all, at least two question from each unit, and students will be required to attempt only 5 questions, at least one from each unit



























B. Tech (Eighth Semester) Mechanical Engineering
ME- 436E DESIGN OF AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS
                                                                                                 Sessional : 50 Marks
                                                                                                    Theory : 100 Marks
L   T     P                                                                                 Total : 150 Marks
4   1     -                                                                                   Duration of Exam: 3 Hrs.
Unit I     Application of Air Conditioning: Medium and large sized buildings, industrial air conditioning, residential air conditioning, air conditioning of vehicles and   aircrafts.    
Psychometry:  Psychometric chart, combined heat and mass transfer, adiabatic saturation, enthalpy potential. Air Conditioning Load: Comfort and design conditions, thermal transmission,   infiltration and ventilation loads, heating and cooling loads, solar radiation properties, periodic heat transfer through walls and roofs.
Unit II Air Conditioning Systems: Thermal distribution systems, classic single-zone systems, outdoor air control, single-zone system design, multiple-zone systems, terminal reheat systems, dual duct or multizone system, variable air-volume systems, hydronic systems, unitary systems, passive air conditioning systems.
Unit III  Vapour Compression Cycle: Compressors: Reciprocating, rotary, screw, scroll vane and centrifugal compressors. Condensers and evaporators – heat transfer, pressure drop, extended surfaces, condensing capacity, condenser design, boiling in shell and tubes, evaporator performance, defrosting methods. Expansion devices – capillary tube design, constant pressure expansion valve, float valves, superheat controlled thermostatic expansion valve.
Refrigerants: Primary and secondary refrigerants, halocarbons, azeotropes, ozone depletion, eco friendly refrigerants.
Unit IV Equipment Design: Fan and duct systems, fan laws, air-distribution in rooms, ventilation systems, diffusers and induction, fan coil units. Cooling and dehumidifying coils – Heat and mass transfer, moisture removal, coil performance, Controls: Pneumatic, electric and electronic controls, thermostats, dampers, outside air control, freeze protection, humidistat, acoustics and noise control.
Text Books :
1.        Refrigeration and air conditioning – W.F. Stoecker, J.W. Jones, McGraw 
       Hill Book Co.
     2.    Air conditioning Engineering – W.P. Jones, Edward Arnold
Reference Books:
  1. Hand book of air conditioning system design – Carrier Air conditioning Co., McGraw Hill Book co
2.   Thermal Environmental Engg. – James L. Threlkeld, Prentice Hall, Inc
  1. Refrigeration and Air conditioning – C P Arora, Tata McGraw Hill Pub. Co
Ltd.
4.   Refrigeration and Air conditioning – P L Ballaney, Khanna Publishers
Note : In the semester examination, the examiner will set eight questions, at least two questions from each unit. The students will be required to attempt only 5 questions.

ME-  438 E   AUTOMATIC CONTROLS
(THEORY AND APPLICATIONS)
L T   P                                                                                                Sessional Marks : 50
3 1     -                                                                                                 Theory Marks : 100
                                                                                                    Total Marks : 150
Duration of Exam : 3 hrs.
Unit I   Introduction And Applications: Types of control systems ; Typical Block Diagram :Performance Analysis; Applications – Machine Tool Control, Boiler Control, Engine Governing, Aerospace Control, Active Vibration Control;  Representation of Processes & Control Elements – Mathematical Modeling, Block Diagram Representation, Representation of Systems or Processes, Comparison Elements; Representation of Feedback Control systems – Block Diagram & Transfer Function Representation, Representation of a Temperature, Control System, Signal Flow Graphs, Problems. Types Of Controllers: Introduction: Types of Control Action; Hydraulic Controllers; Electronic Controllers; Pneumatic Controllers; Problems.
Unit II Transient And Steady State Response: Time Domain Representation; Laplace Transform, Representation; System with Proportional Control; Proportional – cum – Derivative control; Proportional – cum – Integral Control; Error Constants; Frequency Response Analysis: Introduction; Closed and Open Loop Transfer Function; Polar Plots; Rectangular Plots; Nichols Plots: Equivalent Unity Feed Back Systems; Problems.
Unit III Stability Of Control Systems: Introduction; Characteristic Equation; Routh’s Criterion; Nyquists Criterion, Gain & Phase Margins, Root Locus Method: Introduction; Root Ioci of a Second Order System; General Case; Rules for Drawing Forms of Root Ioci; Relation between Root Locus Locations and Transient Response; Parametric Variation; Problems.
Unit IV   Digital Control System : Introduction; Representation of Sampled Signal; Hold Device; Pulse Transfer Function; Block Diagrams; Transient Response; Routh’s Stability Criterion; Root Locus Method; Nyquists Criterion; State Space Analysis of Control Systems: Introduction; Generalized State Equation; Techniques for Deriving System State – Space Equations; Transfer Function from State Equations; Solution of State Vector Differential Equations; Discrete Systems; Problems.
Text Books :
1. Theory & Applications of Automatic Controls by B.C. Nakra, Published by New    Age International Pvt. Ltd. Publishers, New Delhi 1998.
2. Modern Control Engg. By Ugata, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi.
Reference Books:
1. Automatic Control Systems by Kuo’ Published by Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi.
2. Control System Engineering, I. J. Nagrath and M. Gopal, New Age International limited.
Note : In the semester examination, the examiner will set eight questions in all, at least two questions from each unit & students will be required to attempt only 5 questions.


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